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Example of Dissertation Literature Review:
As it has been previously mentioned, the primary objective of the following research is to develop a comprehensive plan that would enhance Corporate Social Responsibility at Ghana National Petroleum Company by exploring the potential knowledge and gaps in its mission, vision, and strategic framework. In order to examine this question and achieve the set objective, the emphasis should be placed on the financial and environmental activities, employee culture and organizational development of the corporation. Overview of theoretical frameworks provided in the books and research articles will also be a major contribution to the development of a new strategic ideology. The first part of the review will be orientated to the analysis of the best practices and trends used to implement corporate social responsibility. In the studies by Lindgreen and Swaen (2010, p. 1), it is assumed that CSR “…has moved from ideology to reality, and many consider it necessary for companies to define their roles in the society and apply social and ethical standards to their businesses.” Despite the fact that many companies support and reveal their commitment to corporate social responsibility, the majority of them resist it. Additionally, Leonard and McAdam (2003) focus on the analysis of such aspects as definition of CSR, as well as its ethical foundations that influence the quality of the organizational activities. It should be noted that the researchers provide a sufficient explanation why CSR shapes a good stance of business. In particular, they argue that the concepts should be employed to enhance quality, prove the practicality and profitability, and place an emphasis on sustainable development and performance. In addition, Leonard and McAdam (2003) assume that CSR has a potent impact on the organizational activities, such as disclosure of packaging, labeling, production, integrity, marketing, advertising, distribution, pricing and selling practices. The idea that business should solely rely on the profitability aspect is false because companies should connect business and commercial activities to enhance their respectable image and increase their customer base. According to Cadbury (2006), there is a growing tendency of introducing new values for attracting clients who are more interested in the environmentally friendly products rather than those proposed at a cheaper price. The ratio of quality and price is the priority for each client because of his/her increased concern for their health and status. It is evident that the globalization process has touched on both developed and developing countries. As a result, Ghana National Petroleum Corporation has also undergone changes in terms of its outlook on collaboration and corporate social responsibility. For instance, Oxford Business Group (2011) has presented a report in which the company’s managers support the idea that collaboration, trustful relationships and constant partnership stand at the core of successful economic and business development. Thus, it is recommended to introduce norms and objectives that would allow companies to trace the recent trends in managing an organizational environment. Before conducting an extensive overview of programs and reforms that have been implemented at GNPC, the emphasis should be placed on the overall situation with the social and environmental concerns handled in the country. For instance, CSA International, Inc., (2008) has presented a report on the social and environmental development in Ghana. In particular, the Jubilee Field, the accumulation of oil that is currently developed by the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation, has been estimated in the following report. The development plan has been presented as the first step in reconsidering nine production wells, three gas injection wells, and five water wells. The environmental and social evaluation program belongs to one of four socioeconomic documents designed in collaboration with the developmental plan. The main objective of the report is to examine the potential social and environmental influences of the plan and define mitigation measures to enhance and promote the environmentally friendly development and continuation of the plan. In fact, the very existence of the plan is a step forward for creating a socially and economically healthy environment. In such a manner, GNPC will be able to gain recognition on the part of the government, as well as on other communities that are interested in consuming the environmentally safe products. The analysis of all approaches chosen for conducting the research will also be presented in several stages. In particular, the main purpose of the program is to consider such aspects as protection of species that inhabit the region, as well as take control of the statistics for marine mammals and chemosynthetic communities in the Jubilee Area. Although little information can be found on the CSR practices in Ghana National Petroleum Corporation, there are still a range of programs and principles that have been implemented to promote different social and environmental policies of the company. As Pamford (2010), GNPC has signed an agreement according to which it agrees to provide gas and oil in conformity with the provisions stipulated in the agreement. In this context, the corporation strives to comply with the norms and agreements that would serve the benefits and welfare of the entire country. In order to enlarge on this issue, although corporate social responsibility has become the major course of frictions and disagreements between the parties, this aspect is crucial to shaping a healthy economic and legal environment for oil and gas production. Additionally, Pamford (2010) asserts: “due to its wide socio-economic and even political and social conflict implications, CSR cannot be treated as a pure internal corporate manner” (p. 91). In addition, oil and gas production of Ghana is more appropriate for larger payouts as soon as proper corporate social responsibility framework is established. Therefore, the company should be more concerned with the public policy consequences while being engaged into the production of oil and gas. It is of particular importance to environmental concerns, particularly the technologies of waste utilization, and many other aspects of ecologically safe production. The primary task of GNPC is to adhere to all governmental and legal regulations both at the local and international levels. What is more important is that the input of goods and services in the country could not be managed properly if efficient corporate social responsibility is presented. In this respect, there are provisions in the Annex that have been protected through the analysis of these approaches and management of new aspects of the public sector and external stakeholders (Pamford 2010). In order to advance efficient CSR, the emphasis should be placed on the analysis of new public policies that would eliminate all problems and obstacles to the production of oil and gas, as well as encourage people to promote oil leases. From a political point of view, Ghana has to provide a competitive field for all companies apart from GNPC. In its turn, the company under analysis must take into consideration all these aspects. It is of particular concern to the political situation in the country. According to Pamford (2010, p. 92), “politically, although it has not as yet established a long record of multiparty-democracy, it has made adequate progress and ranks high among African and developing nations in political stability.” Additionally, as compared to other African countries, Ghana provides a peaceful and steady environment for business development. The company can enjoy other advantages associated with the production of oil and gas. In particular, sweet crude oil can be shipped to all the markets, including the Western European-based markets, as well as North American/Texas Intermediate Market. Therefore, the corporation can be presented as a public entity with personnel promoting and deploying oil production. Additionally, the company has been involving its employees in various activities in the country and abroad. It has also accumulated some related expertise in data and technology. According to Pamford (2010, p. 93), “The GNPC’s crucial roles in Ghana’s new oil sector may epitomize the challenges Ghana faces as it seeks to implement successfully the MPA.” Therefore, the corporation can perform a dual function, being both a commercial partner and a regulator of an organizational dilemma. In particular, the company raises a question of the effectiveness of the functions, as well as limited institutional capability of GNPC. The approval of the government to carry out resource development in the region is as important as that provided by the community and other external stakeholders involved into the activities of the corporation. It is possible to refer to the treaties and agreements concluded by GNPC with other companies and organizations. It has been reported that the corporation has concluded an agreement with AGM Petroleum Ghana, which was ratified by the government (Ghana Web 2013). The ratification provides the two parties with the exclusive privilege to conduct all petroleum exploration, production, and development activities in the South Deepwater Tano Block. The Cabinet and the Parliamentary Select Committee on Mines, Energy, and Petroleum have also approved the agreement. The main essence of the following agreement is to incorporate commercial interest of GNPC in exploring and producing oil (Ghana Web 2013). The agreement also endows the country with a stronger position in producing and exploring its economic and resource potential through the business activities of GNPC. It should be noted that establishing partnerships with other organization is also a great contribution to the development of corporate social responsibility framework within the company. Both employees and their clients will be more encouraged to use domestic products. What is more important, constant collaboration and interaction with the government and other legal entities could become a step toward better public relation policies that would allow GNPC to gain recognition and enhance its respectable image both in the country and abroad.
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