Iron deficiency anemia
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs due to an inadequacy of iron, which is necessary for the production of RBCs. Iron is required for the formation of hemoglobin (Miller, 2013). Inadequate iron results in the production of fewer red blood cells. As a result, the transportation of oxygen to the body parts to compensate for the needs is impaired. The analysis of Ms. As work-up results and her current circumstances in the case study indicates that she is, most likely, suffering from iron deficiency anemia.
IDA can be represented with breath shortness and general body weakness. Ms. A has these symptoms, including low energy levels since the start of the golf season. Also, she has experienced dizziness while participating in a golf tournament. These symptoms are common in individuals with IDA, and this explains why IDA is the likely diagnosis that Ms. A has.
Due to a lack of iron enough for the formation of hemoglobin, low levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit are common symptoms in individuals with IDA. Ms. As hemoglobin level is 8g/dl; a value that is below the normal range for women, which is 12g/dl to 15.1g/dl (Camaschella, 2015). Additionally, Ms. As hematocrit is 32%. For women, the lower level of the hematocrit range is 36% whereas the upper limit of the hematocrit range is 48% (Camaschella, 2015). Ms. As's work-up findings correlate with those of IDA.
IDA can result from the blood loss that can occur due to heavy menstruation or bleeding that might be caused by gastrointestinal diseases. Ms. A says that she experiences menorrhagia. Short and Domagalski (2013) explain that hemorrhage which results from the use of aspirin for a long period of time can lead to the development of this disease. The source of hemorrhage can emanate from menorrhagia or intestinal bleeding. In the case study, menorrhagia is present that can cause the development of IDA. Additionally, Ms. A is a chronic aspirin user as she states that she takes the drug every 3 to 4 hours every 6 days of her menstruation period. Hemorrhage results in the reduction of the blood's iron content causing an anemic episode. To antagonize this loss of hemoglobin, the bone marrow is activated to facilitate the production of more blood cells. Since hemoglobin synthesis is defective, the produced erythrocytes are usually hypochromic and microcytic (Short & Domagalski, 2013). In the case study, similar results were observed.
In IDA, the patient is likely to experience a fast and irregular heart rate accompanied by a decrease in his or her blood pressure. In the case of Ms. A, the physician indicates that she is suffering from tachycardia which is accompanied by low blood pressure. Miller (2013) explains the relevance of using erythrocyte count in confirming the diagnosis of IDA. In this disease, the erythrocyte count usually drops below normal levels. In the case study, Ms. A exhibits the symptom of having a low erythrocyte count than the expected normal range of 4.2 to 5.4 million cells/dl (Camaschella, 2015). Miller (2013) states that even though a low erythrocyte count signifies anemia, other differential diagnoses such as dehydration, medications, and stress should be investigated before suspecting iron deficiency anemia when the symptom presents on its own. However, low erythrocyte count can be used to diagnose IDA if it occurs along with the other symptoms of the disease.
In conclusion, Ms. A exhibits symptoms that correlate with those signifying iron deficiency anemia. The consistent menorrhagia patterns have resulted in significant iron loss. It has impacted the ability of the body to produce healthy red blood cells. Consequently, this has resulted in the impairment of the oxygen supply in the body. The symptoms of shortness of breath, tachypnea, dizziness, tachycardia, and decrease in blood pressure are symptoms of iron deficiency anemia which are also present in the case study. Thus the likely diagnosis Ms. A is suffering from is IDA.