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Cardiovascular Diseases Literature Review
Cardiovascular diseases or CVD refers to a group of heart and blood vessel disorders, which cause high mortality and morbidity rates among the Hispanic populations. Even though recent years have brought the increased awareness of the risk factors leading to the development of CVD, this group of health disorders still causes adverse health consequences to Hispanic citizens. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among the Hispanic populations has achieved alarming rates and ignited concerns among modern health care professionals. This research presupposes that the most influential causes of cardiovascular diseases are the cultural and social behavioral patterns of Hispanic individuals. They promote the development of cardiovascular disorders through the application of adverse nutrition and lifestyle habits. There exists an assumption that raising the knowledge and awareness of the risk factors, which lead to cardiovascular diseases, could help Hispanic populations. This educational project is aimed at altering nutritional habits, increasing the impetus in physical activity, and changing the daily behavior modes that could assist to reduce the susceptibility of this minority group towards cardiovascular diseases.
The literature sources, like the United States Census Bureau Report FFF: Hispanic Heritage Month 2015 (2015) provide the statistical data related to this minority group. Poverty and lack of education have a profound effect on the Hispanic understanding of health-related issues. This literature source has provided the detailed statistical analysis, necessary for this investigation, and revealed the true state of affairs. It has shown that 23 % of Hispanics live in poverty and that 64,7% of Hispanic individuals have a high school education. It means that nearly 37% of people lack a high school education. Moreover, the data show that 24,3% of Hispanic citizens cannot afford health insurance. All these issues are essential for this study, as they reveal the burning necessity for health education. The statistics have served as practical proof towards the fact that serious assistance is necessary to stop the avalanche of cardiovascular diseases and preserve Hispanic people.
The literature review confirmed the fact that patients education is one of the most efficient interventions, which could significantly improve the target outcome. In the article Status of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States (2014) by Rodrigues, Allison, Daviglus, Isasi, Keller, Leira, Palaniappan, Pina, Ramirez, Tindrigues, and Sims analyze risk factors, which lead towards the development of cardiovascular diseases and reveal that distinct nutritional habits are influenced by the desire to preserve cultural food traditions. This results in the consumption of dishes with high cholesterol levels, high-fat, and high sugar rates. Such a diet adversely affects the health state, and gradually results in the development of cardiovascular disease. The work is a precious source, which includes the quantitative investigation, which confirms that the prevalence of cardiovascular disorders has been caused not only by poor physical health, but about the daily habits, lack of knowledge, and wish to preserve the traditional Hispanic cultural patterns.
In the course of this investigation, the emphasis was laid on the cognitive health theories, which researched not only the health disorders development but accurately discussed the predispositions, which finally resulted in their occurrence.
The first concept, which plays a groundbreaking role in this study is the health belief model, which provides the reasonable organization of psychosocial terms that affect the health state of Hispanic individuals. Raczynnski and DiClemente (2013) emphasize the fact that the major advantage of this model is the fact of its appropriateness for the health promotion and disease prevention areas, which play a key role in this research. Raczynnski and DiClemente (2013) also note that numerous studies have manifested empirical support for the HBM. The analysis of the major HBM components that include susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, has shown their significant relationship with the measured outcomes. This literature source is essential for the investigation, as it provides a deep analysis of the theoretical frameworks, which serve as major pillars for this research. It accurately describes the practical application of HBM and its possible benefits for this project. HBM provides the clarification of key concepts and shows that its application could go beyond the behavior screening. The organizational focus of the model is a manifestation of the cognitive and psychosocial reasons, which result in the development of cardiovascular disorders and explain the failure of certain prevention programs. This conceptual framework indulges in the deep analysis of the nature, cultural patterns, and modes of behavior of a particular group of individuals, to produce useful tips, which could be further used for the creation of efficient prevention programs. In this situation, when the educational intervention is planned, this work seems to be a valuable source.
The literature analysis has shown that social cognitive theory is also of great significance for this project. It has shed light on the problem of the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among the Hispanic populations. The social cognitive theory was developed by researcher Bandura in 1977 and is generally treated as one of the most influential models of human behavior and change promotion. Researchers Edelman, Mandle, and Kudzma (2014) have described the role of social cognitive theory and the concept of self-efficacy for health promotion. This theory is useful, as it assists to clarify the environmental and social factors that have a profound impact on the learning of new health habits, conducting the actual changes, and planning the health teaching. The research reveals that these factors ensure the positive outcome of the prevention programs. This theory focuses on how people learn. The major idea of this theory is the assumption that change is the process of individuals learning. It plays a significant role in this project, as its major objective is to teach Hispanic people to make them change adverse nutrition and lifestyle habits. The major objective of this investigation is to discard the old habits and adopt new ones, and this literature source might turn out to be helpful.
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases raises concerns and makes researchers consider new preventive methods. The literature analysis has that to make the intervention successful, it is necessary to consider the ways of influencing the community. Researchers DiClemente, Salazar, and Crosby (2013) apply the previous data, researched by Albert Bandura, to show the efficient change roots. They emphasize that the four most significant methods of learning are psychological state, verbal persuasion, vicarious experience, and enactive attainment. The book emphasizes that to achieve the goal; it has to be broken down into a series of sub-goals. Particular emphasis is put on motivated behavior. The author proposes the implementation model could turn out to be a significant and applicable method in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders among the Hispanic populations. This model could be used in the course of an educational project, as it divides the participants by the level of motivation, and makes the health care professionals take the actions to affect even those individuals, who cannot motivate themselves. It presupposes the division of efforts. The work is a vital source, as it provides the analysis of health promotion means through the application of social cognitive tools.
In conclusion, it has to be admitted that the literature review has confirmed the idea that health promotion is possible through the application of the means, which have a profound effect on the Hispanic population's cognition and psychology. The source analysis has revealed that the Hispanic population is a sensitive minority group, which experiences several social issues, like lack of education and poverty. These factors affect the treatment of health issues of Hispanic individuals. To achieve the long-lasting consequences, the psychology, nature, and culture of this minority group have to be considered and the preventive tools have to be worked out.