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Staff Turnover Ratio Between Male And Female


This paper is dedicated to the illustration of the research findings. In particular, it describes the findings and conclusions that have been drawn from the collected data as evidenced in the research questionnaires and interviews that were carried out within the scope of this study. In addition to illustrating these research findings, the chapter will also assess them from the perspective of the existing HR theories and literature on human resource management.

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Gender, age, and department

Both male and female employees are represented at UICC. However, gender representation is not equal within the organization. In particular, there are more female employees in comparison to male employees. Thus, according to research findings, 28 of the participants representing 71.79% were women, while only 11 of them, which equals 28.21% of the staff, were men.

The age of employees was assessed within five categories, particularly employees aged 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-55, and those over 55 years. Most of the employees were found to belong to the age categories of 25-34 and 35-44 years. Thus, 15 employees fall into the first category and 13 employees fit into the second one, which represents 38.46% and 33.33% of the respondents respectively.

It is established from the collected data that most of the employees work in the membership and partnership department, which accounts for 23.08% of respondents. Capacity building represents the next largest department at UICC, employing 17.95% of respondents, and is followed by the advocacy and network department, which employs 15.38% of workers. The finance and administration, communication, marketing, web, and congress and event departments have equal employee representation, which constitutes 12.82% of respondents. The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) has the least number of employees, representing only 2.56% of respondents.

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The research findings indicate that there is no relationship between gender and age at UICC. This conclusion was drawn based on Chi-square probability, which was found to be 0.44. Thus, a Chi-square probability lower than 0.5 proves that there is no association between gender and age within an organization. This finding is demonstrated in the chart below.

Chart 1. Chi-Square probability for gender and age.

  • Longevity within the organization

There is no association between gender and the length of services provided by employees at UICC. This finding is justified by the calculated Chi-square probability. The indicator was found to be 0.442, thus confirming that there is no relationship between an employee’s gender and the length of his or her services at the organization. This finding has been illustrated in the chart in the excel sheet attached.

  • Longevity within the organization vs. gender

The findings of the study as demonstrated in the data collected indicate that women tend to stay longer at UICC than men. Thus, the length of stay of the majority of managers, most of whom are women, ranges from 8 to 11 years. Such a long stay of female workers in the organization to an extent explains why women are more likely to be promoted as managers than men.

Managerial position, time, and management style

The findings of this research study show that there are several managerial positions held at UICC. In particular, management roles are performed by the heads of departments, including the department of communication, marketing, and web, the department of capacity building, the department of advocacy and networking, the department of congress and event, the department of finance and administration, the department of membership and partnership, and the CEO. Most of the managers asserted that they have held their position for a period ranging from 8 to 11 years. This finding is significant as it indicates managers’ considerable experience, which makes them a valuable asset for UICC. The less experienced managers have held their position for less than a year, which accounts for 2.56% of responses. However, some relatively experienced managers have held their position for a period from 4 to 7 years.

The findings of this study further reveal that there are several management styles utilized by managers at UICC. These include visionary, democratic, coaching, and pacesetting management styles. The visionary management style is utilized by the majority of managers at the organization as it recorded the highest response of 7.69%. Managers who adopt this style of management involve the staff in the decision-making process (Elqadri, Priyono & Chandra 2015). Managers using this style of management have high self-confidence, are empathetic, and serve as change catalysts.

Another management style that is identified from the data collected is democratic. This style of management is encompassed by managers seeking the opinion of employees. According to Gul et al. (2012), a democratic manager allows the staff to contribute to the decision-making process. The democratic management style is also characterized by a high sense of collaboration, communication, and team leadership.

Some of the managers in the organization also utilize the coaching style of leadership. Elqadri, Priyono, and Chandra (2015) affirm that managers who use this style are usually concerned with assisting employees to advance their skills by encouraging them to build up their strengths. Providing effective guidance is one of the tools used by leaders utilizing this management style. Additionally, such managers also tend to show a considerable amount of empathy and have a high sense of awareness.

The final management style utilized by managers at UICC as evidenced in the data collected is pacesetting. In the view of Elqadri, Priyono, and Chandra (2015), this style of management involves mounting challenges for employees, causing them to illustrate their work. Therefore, managers adopting the pacesetting management style are conscientious, have a drive for achievement, and tend to take an initiative.

The obtained data suggest that the staff at UICC is happy with management. It can be attributed to the fact that the management styles used at this organization have allowed employees to feel a sense of inclusion in management. Employee involvement in the management of an organization is vital for employee satisfaction. Thus, in the view of Gul et al. (2012), employee inclusion in leadership makes them regard an organization as caring. It also shows that their contribution to the organization is valued.

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The above management styles can be adequately linked to several HR theories. For instance, according to Gul et al. (2012), the democratic management style can be linked to McGregor’s theory Y. A high sense of collaboration that this style encourages is the evidence of its relation to the theory. Elqadri, Priyono, and Chandra (2015) further claim that managers who use theory Y are optimistic and therefore more likely to use a participative management style, creating a sense of collaboration and trust among employees.

A manager from Opposite Sex

There is minimal diversity in the gender of managers at UICC. Thus, most of the managers as ascertained in the data collected are women. In particular, all top managerial positions except for the CEO are occupied by women. The lack of diversity in the manager position at UICC is further illustrated by the data collected from the questionnaire. Thus, approximately 82.05% of the participants responded that their line manager was a woman.

This finding is critical for this study as it is indicative of a considerable association between the manager’s gender and the longevity of staff within any company, including UICC. Thus, many employees tend to perform better in a diverse work environment. For UICC employees, there will be a significant association between managers’ gender and their longevity due to the lack of diversity. Having such a large number of female managers will suggest that only women have precedence within the company. The most affected party will be men, who will feel unappreciated.

The lack of gender diversity in the management position at UICC is a clear indicator of gender imbalance in the workplace. As suggested by Jayachandran (2015), gender imbalance affects the longevity of employees due to its impact on career development. As a consequence, employees who have experienced gender imbalance tend to feel dissatisfied and leave the company in an attempt to find a workplace that will provide them with ample career opportunities. Another way that gender imbalance affects employee longevity is through its impact on productivity. According to Berg and Bjarneg? rd (2016), gender imbalance is a sign of discrimination that makes the affected parties feel the desolation, which further impacts their sense of morale and thus productivity. Such employees find it difficult to continue doing their jobs as they lose their self-esteem, which translates into a reduced sense of productivity. In the end, they opt to leave the organization to find a job where their skills will not be rated based on their gender.

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This issue of gender imbalance is also in line with the HR theory of ambivalent sexism. According to Parcheta, Kaifi, and Khanfar (2013), this theory explains hostile sexism in the workplace, in particular, antagonistic attitudes that are developed towards a particular gender within an organization. According to scholars, antagonistic attitudes are an indicator of negative stereotypes about a particular gender.

Relationship between staff members

As per the evidence presented in the collected data, employees at UICC have an amicable relationship with the non-managerial staff. This relationship is described as highly professional by approximately 38.46% of the respondents. 33.33% and 28.21% of the respondents refer to the relationship with their colleagues as good and extremely good respectively.

Amicable relationship among staff is described as essential for the development of a favorable work environment in the existing literature. A stimulating work environment is significant for staff, especially given the fact that employees spend a considerable amount of their time at workplace. Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015) opine that people tend to spend close to a decade of their life at work; therefore, the working environment should be stimulating. According to Bojadjiev et al. (2015), a favorable work environment is significant for staff due to its positive impact on their health. In this case, a stimulating work environment helps the staff to relax and feel less stress and pressure at work.

It is also essential to mention that a good work environment contributes to more engaged staff. According to Bojadjiev et al. (2015), a favorable work environment positively impacts the sense of productivity of employees. Such employees strive to perform better as they begin to care about the future of their organization.

The significance of a good work environment further links with the goal-setting theory postulated by Jain and Kaur (2014). This theory posits that a good work environment is attractive, satisfactory, and comfortable. Such an environment motivates staff and provides them with a sense of pride in their work. Therefore, the type of work environment should be carefully assessed as it directly affects the overall performance of employees.

Job satisfaction

  • Workload, variety of tasks, and level of control

The findings of this study show that many of the employees at UICC feel they are overworked. This fact is ascertained by 51.28% of the participants, who assert they are not satisfied by their workload since they have too much work to do in comparison to their salary. On the other hand, a considerable number of employees feel that their workload is fair, as represented by 35.90% of the responses given. Some employees feel dissatisfied with their workload and express that they do not have enough work. According to the findings of Singh and Jain (2013), for many employees, large workloads, including longer hours of work, tend to increase stress levels. Stress at work ultimately causes a considerable level of job dissatisfaction among employees. Similarly, Shmailan (2016) reiterates that excessive workload contributes to very high levels of stress, which in turn negatively affects job satisfaction among employees. Thus, employees who are burdened with a heavy workload are usually less satisfied with their work.

With regard to the concept of the variety of tasks, the findings of this study show that the company offers little variety of tasks to its employees. Therefore, many of them express a considerable level of boredom with regard to their work. This is a critical indicator of minimal motivation and therefore lack of job satisfaction. Parvin and Kabir (2011) posit that a variety of tasks is an effective tool of job enrichment. They argue that variation of tasks given to employees tends to reduce boredom, enhances employees’ morale, and ultimately leads to increased job satisfaction. On the other hand, Rahman, Akhter and Khan (2017) warn that variation of tasks should not be done by delegating more tasks to employees who find it stressful. Otherwise, this step may lead to increasing job dissatisfaction.

The study finds that employees are indifferent about the level of control they have in their work. This finding is supported by the fact that 46.15% of the research participants expressed their satisfaction with the level of freedom they had in their jobs, while 41.03% were not satisfied and indicated that they would prefer more freedom. Some prefer to have more guidance in their work and therefore do not care much about freedom in their work, which is represented by 12.82% of the participants. The level of control that employees have in their work also impacts their level of job satisfaction. Parvin and Kabir (2011) attribute this to the fact that employees’ level of control of their work impacts essential components of job satisfaction such as emotional well-being and level of stress. In the view of Singh and Jain (2013), when managers exert close control over employees, their emotional well-being is enhanced and, as a result, they tend to experience less stress. Such employees, therefore, have a higher level of job satisfaction. Nonetheless, such tendency does not apply to all employees as has been determined in this study. Thus, several employees prefer to be guided in their work. Shmailan (2016) claims that exercising a high level of control over such employees is likely to bring about adverse effects. They usually become confused about their role, which hurts their sense of job satisfaction.

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Workload, variety of tasks, and level of control align well with the HR model of job characteristics. Singh and Jain (2013) opine that these are the key job characteristics that have an important impact on the psychological state of employees and thus their job satisfaction. Therefore, undertaking initiatives to improve these characteristics will ultimately enhance employees’ job satisfaction.

  • Career opportunity

The findings of this study show that there are limited career opportunities at UICC. This is supported by the fact 76.92% of the respondents admitted that they have never been promoted within the organization. Only 17.95% of the respondents received promotion once, and 5.13% were promoted twice at UICC.

This is a significant finding for this study and therefore UICC. Thus, as illustrated in several studies, there is a momentous relationship between career opportunities and staff length of services. For instance, Antoniu (2010) finds that career development through opportunities such as promotion has a significant influence on the length of services and thus employee retention in organizations. In the view of Wickramasinghe and Dolamulla (2017), career development is a significant need for staff. Therefore, when an organization allows its employees to satisfy this need, they will develop increased organizational loyalty and will have no desire to change their job. This conclusion further resonates with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Weng & McElroy 2012). Thus, career development can be perceived as the need for self-actualization in the hierarchy of needs. When this need is fulfilled, employees become more satisfied with their jobs.

Reasons for staff turnover

From the findings presented in the collected data, some of the most frequent reasons why staff would leave UICC include lack of career opportunities, salary package, working conditions, supervisor/manager behavior, workload, and location. This finding is supported by the results of several types of research in this field. Thus, Vnou?kov? and Kup? Nov? (2013) in their study concluded that lack of ability to make decisions at work has been a common cause for many employees to leave. Gupta-Sunderji (2004), on the other hand, finds that freezing of promotions, as well as salary increments, has been a significant reason for many employees resigning from their positions. Some studies also show that workplace relationships play a crucial role in determining an employee’s decision to leave, one of which is the relationship with bosses (Ongori 2007). Finally, Gupta-Sunderji (2004 mentions such reasons of staff turnover as inadequate employee engagement in the management and lack of recognition of employees’ efforts.


From the findings of this study, it is apparent that the majority of the staff is not satisfied with working at UICC. This is evidenced by the fact 28.21% of the respondents asserted that they would not recommend working at the organization. Approximately one third of employees are indifferent about their job, hence are unlikely to recommend working at the organization. Nonetheless, there are those would recommend or highly recommend people to work at UICC, which accounts for 20.51% and 15.38% of responses respectively.

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Overall, these findings show that most of the staff at UICC would not recommend working there. Some of the reasons leading to this fact include the following. Firstly, the overall results indicate that there are minimal career opportunities for employees working at the organization. Okurame (2014) finds that career opportunities are essential in influencing employees to remain within an organization.

Further, low job satisfaction is another reason why they would not recommend working at UICC. Dissatisfaction with the job has been attributed to high gender imbalance resulting from the prevalence of female employees and managers. This conclusion is in line with the findings of Keskes (2014), which show that gender imbalance is a significant cause of poor employee retention in many organizations.

An unfavorable working environment can also be identified as a reason why some of the employees would not recommend working at UICC. Okurame (2014) affirm that lack of a stimulating working environment can impact the ability of an organization to attract the right talent due to its negative impact on morale, motivation, and overall employees’ well-being. In addition, such an environment tends to make most of the employees stressed, which hinders them from being productive and thus undermines organizational performance.


From the historical background, the gender imbalance has always arisen as a problem in the workplace. Since ancient times, women have been the worst affected by this issue. This is evidenced by the fact that only in the recent past women have been provided access to essential social and political rights such as the right to vote.

Masculine and feminine behavior has played a pivotal role in this problem of gender imbalance at the workplace. As a rule, masculine and feminine behavior was based on stereotypes that were derived from the implied physical characteristics of the two genders. Gender imbalance should be overcome given the benefits of integrating both male and female employees into organizational functioning. Thus, gender equality should be accepted and thus diversity should be promoted in the workplace.

There are many reasons for staff turnover. Some of those mentioned in the literature review and research findings included poor company policies, dissatisfaction with management, missed career growing opportunities, and workplace conflict. The literature review ends with the assertion that there is a considerably strong correlation between gender imbalance at the workplace and high employee turnover.

Some key findings have been made within the scope of this study. First, the study found that gender representation at UICC is not equal. Thus, there are more women than men employees as well as managers working at UICC. This element of the findings has been the main contributing factor to the existing gender imbalance problem. The problem has mainly manifested itself in the career growth process in the organization.

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Another key element of the findings is that there is no any association between gender and age of employees at UICC. Most of the employees in this organization belong to two age categories, 25-34 years and 35-44 years. Gender representation in these age categories is relatively fair for both men and women.

Additionally, one more key element of the findings of this study includes this. There is a good working environment at UICC which has been brought about by the good relationship among staff members. This relationship is further cultivated by managers recognizing employees for their efforts towards the success of the organization through showing appreciation.

Another key finding of this study is that management styles utilized by managers of UICC enhance good relationships among employees. Most of these management styles are accommodating and therefore adequately meet the work needs of employees. Leadership styles adopted by the organization’s managers have played a critical role in motivation of employees and, as a result, had a positive impact on their job satisfaction. Many of these management styles, therefore, have allowed managers to accomplish the established organizational goals while cooperating closely with the staff.

The final key finding is that employees’ workload is rather heavy, which has led to increasing job dissatisfaction. The level of control of work also has an enormous impact on the level of job satisfaction among employees. However, the research findings also indicate that a considerable percentage of employees are rather indifferent with regard to their level of freedom within the organization. The study also showed that there is inefficient variety of tasks offered at UICC, which resulted in the development of boredom among many employees.

Therefore, this study was able to adequately address the objectives’ questions.Firstly,staff turnover at UICC was characterized with a high level of job dissatisfaction. This was due to inadequate career growth opportunities, heavy workload, poor salary package, working conditions, and location.

Secondly, it was revealed that the features of gender imbalance in the organization mostly affected top management. In this regard, all top management positions with an exception of the CEO at UICC were occupied by women, thus illustrating gender imbalance. This finding indicates that the promotion policies at UICC are discriminatory as only women are promoted at the organization.

Finally, the study concluded that the relationship between gender imbalance and staff turnover at UICC was proportional. This finding is attributed to the fact that gender imbalance hurt men, who in this case were the disadvantaged gender at UICC. Thus, most of the males felt underappreciated due to inadequate promotion opportunities offered to them and thus are more likely to leave the organization.

Therefore, based on all these findings, the answer to the research title “Is the ratio between male and female a contributing factor to high staff turnover at UICC?” is as follows. The ratio between males and females is a contributing factor to high staff turnover at UICC. Within this organization, there are more women in comparison to men, particularly in the managerial positions. Gender imbalance has grown into a critical point of dissatisfaction among employees and in particular male ones, who feel undervalued for their contribution to the organization’s success.

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According to the findings of this study, the main issues that have arisen at UICC are gender imbalance and increasing job dissatisfaction.Particularly, there is a considerably high rate of gender imbalance at UICC, which has resulted in an equally high staff turnover. The issue of gender imbalance is most pronounced in the promotion process in the organization, which has seen less men being promoted to top management positions.

Another critical issue within the organization is job dissatisfaction. Thus, a considerable number of employees have expressed dissatisfaction with their job. Lack of job satisfaction has been attributed to heavy workload, inadequate variety in tasks, the level of control exerted by managers, and lack of adequate recognition by management. As in case of gender imbalance, this issue also has been a significant contributor to staff turnover at UICC.

In light of the main issues that have been identified in this study, the following recommendations have been made. Firstly, to deal with the issue of gender imbalance, the organization should make gender equality a significant part of its employee training. This recommendation mostly refers to new employees joining the organization. The significance of this measure lies in the fact that it will create a sense of awareness of the value of gender equality and thus considerably reduce gender imbalance within the organization. Secondly, the organization needs to avoid limiting its pool of talent for promotions. Achieving this goal is possible when the organization increases its effort toward reaching a 50-50 gender split in all its departments. Thirdly, the organization should reassess its established job requirements for the position of manager. In particular, UICC needs to assess the exact barriers to promotion of male employees to managerial positions. It can be done by including other forms of experience in the requirements, which would ultimately expand the pool of possible candidates for promotion. The final recommendation provided for future consideration is that all members of staff should be given equal access to career development, including opportunities for promotion into management roles. This measure can be achieved by providing adequate opportunities for promotion in all areas of work within the organization. Thus, it will be vital to provide employees with equal exposure to training and career development opportunities besides promotion.

The problem of job satisfaction can be resolved by adopting the following recommendations. Firstly, UICC should strive to develop individual employee workloads that are manageable as per the abilities of each employee. This recommendation can be implemented through the readjustment of job design. Such a move will allow effectively matching organizational roles to the job skills of the employees. Secondly, it is recommended to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the level of control of work done by employees and their desired level of control. Thus, the research findings indicate that some employees would prefer to have a higher level of control in their work, while others need to be provided with direction. It is also recommended that employees should be provided with varied tasks. Such variation will be fundamental in reducing boredom among employees and thus increasing their fulfillment with their work. Finally, the UICC management team needs to show more recognition to employees’ work, which is likely to have a positive impact on their morale and motivation. More encouragement and appreciation from managers will at the same time make employees feel less pressurized in their work and ultimately enhance their level of job satisfaction.

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