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A job analysis can be conducted to determine the roles of employees in case of restructuring in the company or appropriate assignment of job duties among the employees. The job analysis includes a detailed study of the tasks, functions, competencies, and required skills of a certain job (Heathfield, 2017). This analysis collects all the requested information which is associated with a job description (Attard, 2017). For the successful performance of the job analysis, it is helpful to make a list of tasks that should be executed. For each task, it is necessary to clearly define what abilities, skills, professional training, and competencies are requested for an employee to make a job efficient (Attard, 2017). It is needed to consider as many details as possible. Otherwise, an important detail can be missed, which will lead to the position being occupied by the wrong person.
For example, in our organization, there is a need for a sales analyst. For this, detailed answers to the following questions should be given: Does the employee have computer skills? Should he or she be an advanced computer user? Does he or she have to talk to the customers by phone? Should he or she take the orders? Should he or she process online requests? Should the employee prepare the parcels for sending to the client? Should he or she consult the client about the products and services of the organization? Does he or she have to handle complaints? Should the employee have excellent writing and grammar skills? What reports should he or she make in his/her job? What teamwork skills are required for the successful work of the employee?
Monitoring the functions of the current employees is an important component of the job analysis. It is helpful to ask them what actions they perform at work daily, what tools and software they use, how often, and for what purpose (Heathfield, 2017). This will enable the analyst to make an accurate analysis and write a relevant job description. It is good to put the expectations, wishes, and needs of a particular job on paper (Attard, 2017). Careful job analysis assists in selecting the most appropriate personnel for the company.
Conducting the job analysis is not costly if it is done by an experienced HR manager of the company. Then this is one of his or her responsibilities. It is also possible to involve an external specialist, but it will take more time for them to study the specific features of the organization and the corresponding costs for these services.
The job analysis reveals the differences between particular jobs. It is very helpful to communicate with the people who perform this work for determining their specific job functions. For this, such methods of data collection as an interview with the employee, an interview with his or her supervisor, questionnaires, checklists, observation, and work logs are applied. It is beneficial to use such methods in combination to make a complex and diverse job analysis.
In case of unequal treatment at work due to gender, skin color, age, disability, etc., any employee has the right to file a charge to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). According to the law, discrimination is prohibited in any kind of employment, including hiring, dismissal, appointment, promotion, training, and remuneration (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). There are several steps that the EEOC applies to handle a claim.
The process starts when the EEOC sends an appropriate notice to the employer. If the EEOC finds that the laws and regulations do not apply to the employee's case, the investigation will be closed (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). The employee will be notified accordingly. If the case described in the claim breaks the law, then the EEOC suggests the employee and the employer solve the problem through mediation (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). If the parties cannot reach an agreement, the EEOC initiates an investigation procedure. The commission collects the information by talking to the witnesses, requesting the documents and evidence (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). After the investigation completion, the commission sends the notification on its result.
Thus, Nancy has the option to find a solution to the matter at the mediation phase. If it fails, she should wait until the investigation is finished. If the EEOC can not decide whether the law has been violated, Nancy will receive a Notice of Right to Sue. Then the court can decide in favor of Nancy and oblige the employer to transfer her to the position of a sales supervisor. If the commission proves that a violation of the law had happened, the EEOC will try to reach an agreement with the employer. If the employer refuses, the case is handed over to the EEOC legal department, which decides on the need to sue the claim. If no confirmation of the law violation is found by the EEOC, the employee receives a Notice of Right to Sue. The likelihood of Nancy`s success is low as the decision was based on her skills, competencies, and personal traits, not her gender.
The employer should take precautions to prevent employees from filing charges to the EEOC. For this, the organization should comply with one of the core principles of ethical companies which implies fairness in the treatment of employees, clients, and vendors (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright, 2016). It is helpful for the enterprise to implement a policy of equal opportunities and anti-discrimination and apply the internal mechanisms for complaint handling. These procedures should be well-known to the company`s employees. Also, it is helpful to use training programs on how to reveal, prevent and handle discrimination at work for all employees (Segal, 2015). A reasonable precaution also includes HR outsourcing (Noe et al., 2016). In this case, the external personnel agency fairly checks and evaluates the qualifications and skills of the applicants, and provides expert recommendations on who fits the position and who does not.
Answer 3 (Optional #1)
The job characteristics model consists of the following five elements: a variety of skills, identity and significance of the task, autonomy, and feedback (Human Resource Management, 2011). Each component helps refine the performance of the employee and the organization. The illustration of each element`s impact is given below based on my previous working experience. I was working as a Project Manager Assistant in a company which was selling cars.
Skill variety implies the usage of different skills, talents, and abilities for the successful performance of diverse activities (Human Resource Management, 2011). For this, it is beneficial to develop professional competencies. In my work, I performed diverse tasks such as organizing meetings and negotiations, communicating with clients, providing the office with all the necessary supplies, making reports, and filling in the requests for accessories. Each direction of activity required a certain level of skills and I felt my need in each type of work.
Task identity means the degree of task performance by the employee from the beginning to the end with a clearly expressed result (Human Resource Management, 2011). The employee is more interested in work if he or she fulfills the task completely, rather than its separate parts. In my work, I started from smaller tasks, acquiring the required skills for a bigger job. This was the case when I began with the negotiations with a client and finished by handing over the car to a pleased customer.
Task significance includes the extent of the impact of the employee's work on the environment of other people in the workplace or outside it (Human Resource Management, 2011). Recognition of their activity by other people motivates a person to work better and more efficiently (Martin, 2017). I felt the importance of my work when I had to participate in negotiations with an essential client. My preparation for the meeting had an impact on the result of the upcoming deal and the company`s profit.
A bigger degree of autonomy enables an employee to plan the activities and independently determine the methods and procedures for their successful implementation (Human Resource Management, 2011). This is the extent of freedom of a person in the performance of the tasks. In my work, I could plan my working schedule myself and set the priorities in tasks. For example, depending on my workload and the urgency of the tasks, I decided whether I should first fill in all the required documents and reports, and then make calls to the customers, or vice versa. Thus, autonomy motivated me to work with more effort for the benefit of the company.
Feedback provides an individual with information about his or her effectiveness and results of the work. The executives should measure the progress of the employee with feedback (Noe et al., 2016). These data should be clear, understandable, and direct. Getting feedback gives an employee a significant positive motivation which benefits an organization. The supervisor should inform the employee about his or her progress and productivity (Martin, 2017). In my previous job, my supervisor initially pointed out and explained my drawbacks to me, and I did my best to adjust them and perform better. For example, I prepared the set of documents for the contract, but I was not involved in the negotiations with the customer. When the agreement was signed, my supervisor informed me accordingly and praised me for good preparation that resulted in the attraction of a new client. All components of the job characteristics model impact the employee's internal motivation. The higher a person evaluates each element, the better he or she feels at work which enhances the company`s efficiency.
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