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French History Questions
1. The white population of Chesapeake perceived the free black people with caution and hidden fear. There were many laws, which, actually, limited the freedom of black people in comparison with white people. Thus, they could not vote, employ white workers, and bear arms. Besides, they had to pay higher taxes and respect the white people, or else they could be punished without any explanation. In fact, the free black people were always in minority, and the greater part of them was sent away from the colony.
2. The highest percentage of the slave population was in South Carolina (61%). At the same time, New Hemisphere contained the lowest percentage of slaves (only 1% of its population).
3. In 1739, a group of black slaves captured the store with the weapons in the town of Stono and started the rebellion against slavery and their white owners. The group contained approximately 100 slaves who moved to Florida burning houses and killing white people on their way. The rebellion was quickly suppressed by the local militia, and only some of the rebels managed to reach Florida and join the Spanish army. In the process of this revolt, nearly 20 white people were killed. Obviously, such a situation raised panic among the white population and made them rethink the attitude towards slaves regarding freedom and the right to liberty.
4. Great Britain was the most powerful country in the 18th century in terms of its economic, political, social stability, and naval and commercial achievements. The citizens of Great Britain were proud of belonging to the most successful and prosperous country in Europe. As opposed to other European countries, Great Britain claimed to be the only one who preserves the individual's liberty, the dominance of law, Protestant faith, and common social well-being and prosperity.
5. The leading philosopher of liberty was John Locke. He emphasized the importance of individuals freedom and human rights. John Locke supposed that every person had a right to rebel against the oppressive and unfair government, as well as protect personal rights to liberty, social security, and property. Locke's ideas helped poor people, slaves, and women to get more rights and freedom.
6. Generally, only white adult men who owned property could vote. In some towns, the propertied women also cast ballots. At the same time, some colonies restricted the right of Jews, Baptists, Quakers, and Catholics to vote. The same was true about the free black people who owned some property. Additionally, Native Americans could not vote as well.
7. In the 18th century, the Spanish colonies in North America faced the decline of their economic and political power and strength. Spain moved further to colonize new territories and spread its culture, religion, and language. Such a strategy meant a disaster for the local tribes. In fact, the Spanish colonies did not reach great success in terms of economic growth and political stability. The attempts to convert Indians into Christianity and spread their culture also failed.
8. The British colonies outnumbered the French ones in terms of population. Nevertheless, the French government was also strong and mighty. In fact, France was a worthy rival for Britain when speaking about the colonization of North America. French colonies possessed prosperous farms, powerful trading forts and had strong military relations with many Indian tribes. The population of French Canada also tended to increase due to the convenient conditions of living and social stability. Thus, French colonies were much more successful than the Spanish ones.
9. First of all, British colonies were more populated than Spanish and French ones. Moreover, they maintained good diplomatic relationships with the local tribes. British colonies oriented to both trading and manufacturing and cooperated with many countries. Additionally, they provided strict dominance of law and did not force the Indians to accept their culture and religion. Finally, the British government created all possibilities to attract people, while France formed a negative image of the North American colonies and spread this idea in Europe.
10. By the mid-18th century, Great Britain maintained trading relations with countries all over the world. Its global policies called for the corresponding power and possibilities. One of the major rivals of Britain was France. In 1754, G. Washington made attempts to dislodge the French from their forts in Western Pennsylvania. The matter is that those lands belonged to the Ohio Company, and the French colonists did not want to abandon them on account of their fertility and usefulness. This case led to the armed revolt and started the Seven Years War.
11. During the first years of the war, the British army suffered from the military alliance of French and Indian forces. The latter captured British lands and people and pushed the line of settlement back to Carlisle. Moreover, Indians applied violent methods of fighting, killing hundreds of colonists in Western Pennsylvania. The British found themselves unable to resist such attacks and the government decided to put more effort and money to solve this military conflict.
12. The changes occurred in 1757 when William Pitt became a Secretary of State. He ordered to fund Prussia and Austria to fight against the French and keep the borderline. At the same time, the British army concentrated on the war against the French colonies, which were its weak points. Till the end of 1760, Britain managed to conquer nearly all French islands in the Caribbean and set its dominance in India. Besides, Austria and Prussia also managed to resist the attacks of the French, Spanish and Russian alliance.
13. The peace agreement significantly changed the geopolitics of the whole world. Thus, according to it, Britain assumed power over Canada and Florida. Instead, it provided France with its sugar plantation on Guadalupe and Martinique and returned the Philippines and Cuba to Spain. Additionally, France returned a vast territory of Louisiana colony to the Spanish government. Actually, keeping the peace was as difficult a task as waging the war was.
14. Although the main aim of the Indians was to get independence from both empires, during the Seven Years War, they fought on the side of the French. Therefore, Indians regarded the victory of Britain as a threat to their independence and freedom. They supposed that the British would make them the slaves and extort their lands. There were several Indian rebellions against the British government, one of which was known as the Pontiacs rebellion. Nevertheless, the rebellions failed, and the British continued to install their rules and laws. Finally, it became obvious that the Indians and the British should cooperate to protect mutual independence and rights.
15. The numerous Indian rebellions and revolts against the British power resulted in the counterattacks of the letters. Finally, the Indian tribes were forced to sign peace agreements with Britain. However, Britain also agreed to sign the proclamation line, in 1763. According to it, the settlement in the Appalachian Mountains was prohibited since this territory belonged exclusively to Indians. Besides, the government forbade the sale of Indian lands to individual owners. The proclamation line was essential to prevent the probable armed conflicts and rebellions between the two sides.