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Dissertation Conclusion Sample: Abu Dhabi Police

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The Abu Dhabi Police service is among the not-for-profit organizations that play an important role in Abu Dhabi, but it has been encountering numerous challenges, including financial problems. The police service relies mainly on the government as a source of income. However, with the increasing financial needs, it has to come up with alternative methods of getting additional sources of income. This study sought to determine the sources of income for the finance department of the Abu Dhabi Police service and to explore if such sources guarantee financial stability. The investigation was important in identifying the potential sources that the police sources may consider in boosting their income. The study used a mixed-method design with qualitative and quantitative aspects. This one-month study incorporated the views of 78 senior police officers from the financial department. During the study, 64.86% of the interviewees were males, while 34.14% were females. It is worth stressing that 97% of the interviewees recognized the importance of financial resources, while about 3% did not think that these resources are important for the police. On the other hand, 57% of the respondents indicated that the police service currently has limited sources of income, while 30% believed that the police service has unlimited sources of income. Moreover, about 37% of the respondents noted that they were not satisfied with the current sources of income and 60% believed that the police could not meet their financial obligations because of the limited sources of income. Consequently, 55% believed that the police should consider diversifying their sources of income. Therefore, the police service needs to invest more in information and communication technology as a strategy to increase their sources of income.

Discussion

The use of mixed-method research in the study was appropriate because it provided an opportunity to compare the quantitative data with the qualitative data, particularly those that are already documented in literature materials. Quantitative research has been helpful in this research because it has enabled the quantification of attitudes, opinions, and other pertinent variables. Besides, the use of the semi-structured interviews as a tool in this research supported a full exploration of the study topic and its objectives. On the other hand, the use of a qualitative method of data analysis in this research provided an opportunity to gain more insight into the respondents' opinions, reasoning, and motives for taking part in various activities.

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The majority of the senior police officers that were interviewed in this research were males. It can be concluded that female police officers still do not occupy senior positions in the police service. Besides, the recognition by the officers that financial resources are critical for the police service means that there should be some additional sources of income to meet various obligations. The need for financial resources emanates from the obligations given to the department. It is evident from the research that the short-term financial obligations that the police service has to meet include paying salaries, allowances, and bonuses. There are also allowances for clothing, scholarship, hardship, and sustenance that the police service has to budget for every year. Most of the short-term financial obligations recur many times during the year; hence, the police service must have constant income sources to execute the functions associated with such requirements effectively (Nelligan & Bourns, 2011). On the other hand, the notable long-term financial obligations for the police service include the purchase of equipment, construction of facilities, expansion, and replacement of facilities, and development of weapon racks. These capital-intensive projects require large capital outlays that the police service cannot meet effectively if it sticks to the current sources of income.

The sources of income for the police remain limited because most of the funding comes from the government. The limited sources of income mean that the financial department of the police service has to be prudent in using the available financial resources. In addition, even as the police use available resources, they must come up with strategies or other sources of income that will fill the gaps that have not been filled by the government and private funders (Wilson, Weiss, & Chermak, 2014). The strategies must entail incorporating channels or ways of creating additional income that could be sustainable so that the police service meets its financial obligations without a hitch. Currently, most of the sources of income for the police entail license and permit issuance. The main sources are limited, for instance, licenses are issued mostly to airline companies, foreign and local companies, bus drivers, and citizens among other related sources. Therefore, the police have to expand their sources of income beyond the usual permit and licenses issuances, which provide only limited income. The financial department of Abu Dhabi police should be very innovative so that the resulting additional sources of income it chooses are those that bridge its financial gap for a long time. Besides, the issuance of permits and licenses can be done innovatively, for instance, through an online platform that will eliminate many expenses associated with the conventional methods of issuance. The financial department could also review the charges that it levies on various services offered either to reduce or increase them depending on the need.

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The majority of the police officers are not satisfied with the current sources of income. The implication is that there have to be other sources. The current dissatisfaction with the sources may have been informed by the various shortcomings that have been identified. The current sources generate a type of income that does not meet the financial obligations of the police. Therefore, there is no doubt that there has to be an improvement in the way that the police generate and collect their sources of income. Successful improvements will be achieved through the inclusion of inputs of various police officers as well as other relevant stakeholders.

The realization that the police service is failing to discharge its financial obligations effectively is a matter of concern that calls for concerted efforts. In particular, the government as the largest funder of the police service has a responsibility of overseeing and providing valuable guidance. The insights from the government into economic projects that the police service has instituted can help in funds allocation every year of the financial budget. However, while the police may not be able to fully meet their financial obligations, the onus is on them to be more creative and productive in the manner in which they generate income. The strategies of income generation must, however, remain within the police's prescribed line of operation, because going beyond their mandate to generate income is bound to be against the laws of the country. For instance, the government may choose to work closely with the senior police officials to help identify viable income-generating projects and fund such projects. Besides, where the police need the training to have specialized skills to run certain projects, then the government might facilitate training by providing study leave and availing funds for scholarship and training. Furthermore, the government could enhance technical support by bringing in experts to guide police officers on how to manage their income-generating projects.

The police have supported the need for their service unit to diversify to other sources of income after the realization that the current sources do not generate adequate income that meets financial requirements. The finding that the majority of employees were supporting the need for diversification is a clear sign that the problem of inadequate sources of income is dire in the police service, and that it may need to be dealt with immediately. Diversification is important because it broadens the scope of sources of income. However, the diversification program has to be carefully considered to avoid the projects that may seem viable but end up generating less or no additional sources of income for the police. The process of diversification may be done by listing various projects and then evaluating each of them to determine its suitability for implementation. Importantly, the police officers being categorical about the need to remain within their core area of a function indicate that if diversification is not done properly, then the police may end in activities that are considered profit-generating. Currently, the police service department understands that its duty is not to take part in different profit-generating activities, because its mandate does not extend to that. A proper evaluation of the projects, therefore, cannot be avoided for the service to remain within its line of duty or service provision. A notable area of diversification that the police could consider in their endeavor to generate additional income is arms licensing. The police may need to come up with a program that will enable them to license more guns to the public. The processes associated with such licensing will be charged to the individuals who want to hire guns from the police. In this way, the police will generate additional income that they will use to achieve their financial obligations.

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The literature review reveals that the categorization of non-profit organizations depends on whether they are of cultural, corporatist, developing, socio-democratic, or authoritarian types. The description of the various types of different NPOs is crucial for grouping the Abu Dhabi Police Service. Besides, the literature on various theories devoted to NPOs helped to categorize the police service accordingly. Moreover, the theories help differentiate between non-profit organizations and those that aim to make a profit. Among the traditional sources of funding for non-profit organizations that have been identified in the literature review include government funding, grants, charges for services and events, donations, sponsorship, and philanthropy. Organizations fundraise for transactional or strategic reasons focusing on immediate and long-term financial needs respectively (Carrizales, Melitski & Schwester, 2010). The methods of funding that NPOs deploy depend on financial needs. Such methods include planned giving, fundraising on the internet, gift fundraising, corporate giving, bequest giving, and grants. However, it can be concluded from the current study that the Abu Dhabi Police Service does not rely on most of the stated methods of fundraising to generate its income. NPOs have to use strategic means of developing alternative sources of income for their operational needs. Overall, the studies have revealed that the two major sources of revenue are external sources and internal sources. External sources of revenue have proved to be the most effective and sustainable methods that organizations have used over time.

The other strategy that the police could use to generate additional income is the automation of services. In particular, the police may consider creating centers that will not be operated by human beings. Such centers should be developed in a manner that allows people to access all services at one point. In that way, the police will reduce the need to have human resources to provide services and be efficient in the delivery of such services.

The other methods that could be used to enhance income generation include the leasing of vehicles, buildings, and equipment. Such leases are important avenues that the police could use to generate more income. Leases have been used for many years by various organizations to generate income for their operational needs. Undoubtedly, the financial challenges that the Abu Dhabi Police service encounters will be overcome through the careful implementation of other strategies that generate income.

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It is important for the police service to reorganize to make most of its departmental resources. Just like departments may reexamine service preferences as well as obligations, it is also possible for the financial department of the police service to reexamine the allocation as well as utilization of personnel (Gau, Corsaro, Stewart & Brunson, 2012). Importantly, the management at the police service should begin by taking a look at the fundamental principles of good management in mind, particularly how the department is doing business. Like other organizations, police agencies tend to perform their internal reviews or invite consultants to help them undertake such reviews to find out the ways of further improvement. Apart from basic attention to rationalization and efficiency, there is a need for the police to move toward radical, strategic redistribution as well as reprogramming of resources of the department. The moves will be crucial efforts towards easing the burden and enhancing the responsiveness of the police department to the community that it serves.

The police could consider generating additional income through focusing on civil forfeiture, which involves destroying assets that have not been obtained through a legal means. The seizures should be considered where those who own properties are not arrested vindicated not to have committed the said crime but provided the police have demonstrated that the particular asset being held had been utilized in criminal activity. Where property owners fail to come to court to challenge the seizure of property within a given period, then the police may consider selling such property and keeping the earnings for their usage. The financial department of police could raise or facilitate the process of raising revenues different from the normal tax. There are various sources of revenues of non-tax, including cash from the assets that are seized from activities, such as money laundering and drug trafficking. Similarly, user fees charged for answering private burglar alarms, fees for services, such as patrol in malls, as well as contributions made in-kind could be important strategies of generating additional income.

The police should take into account public and private enterprise to cost-share and gain access to various funding streams. The police should consider charging the third parties whenever they perform non-statutory functions, such as policing sports events. Whenever the police perform such functions, they undertake what is known as special police services. Similarly, the police could consider gaining income from reimbursements from other public bodies for services that are provided on their behalf.

The police should also consider outsourcing various services such as scientific services, media, and communication, resource management, training of their officers, information and communication technology, and networks as a way of reducing financial outlay. Outsourcing remains an effective strategy that could be adopted by organizations, even the police service. It is necessary for maximizing limited resources or where there are inadequate funds for the police. Outsourcing could be used as a strategy for cost-saving and making organizations more efficient.

The police may also consider expanding its income stream through trading and commissioning various goods and services (De Heyer, 2014). Notably, trading could help in the generation of additional income or ensuring cost recovery through the sale of in-house expertise through training courses, exploiting intellectual property, providing advertising space, and permitting the hire of police property, such as premises, vehicles, or community assets that they operate. Special relationships with the private sector, such as programs where police managers offer training, could be extremely important sources of getting additional income.

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Another important aspect is the need to enhance integrity, accountability, as well ethical considerations in the police. These virtues are critical in creating public confidence. Notably, the police should consider integrity and accountability in seeking approval for income activity. The important considerations include ensuring that proposals presented follow stipulated financial regulations, the delivery of the planned financial activity, adequate contractual agreements, and plans for recording all income provided.

Conclusion

Non-profit organizations, such as the Abu Dhabi Police Service, continue to play important roles, including the provision of social services and security. The first-changing world means that the challenges that these organizations experience become more complex each day and require more innovative ways to deal with them. A notable challenge that has been identified by the police department is the source of income. However, even as the organizations seek to generate income for their various activities, they must ensure that they do not engage in profit-generating endeavors. The police have limited sources of income and are not permitted to take part in profit-generating activities; thus, the limited sources of income deny NPOs the opportunity to execute some of their functions effectively. From the study, it is clear that the Abu Dhabi Police Service has been effective in the collection of fines and levies, and the recruitment and training of officers joining the service over the years.

A notable weakness that has been reported is the limited sources of income for the police service. The police will not be able to provide essential services if the limited sources of income persist; therefore, they should come up with innovative ways to offset the shortages. It is notable, however, that the police service has an opportunity to enhance revenue collection and increase income for their operations through additional sources of come.

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