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Coursework on Ideological Terrorism
Terrorism is the most widespread act of violence and cruelty in the modern community. There is no country that has never faced this negative phenomenon. It is evident that terrorism influences international relationships leads to internal conflicts and war. Consequently, there is the necessity to find ways of struggling terrorism, especially ethnic and ideological ones that can have social and religious origins. Homeland security is a key priority of any country and its nation.
It is obvious that the cases of terrorism prove the weaknesses of security and the inability of the governments to react against it in time. As a result, this coursework intends to explain the notions of ethnic and ideological terrorism, describe the significance of the Aum Shinrikyo attack, discuss terrorism in the US and explain what is Hizballah.
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Ethnic terrorism was introduced in 1998 (White, 2013). It is a kind of violence that presupposes creating a particular local identity. Ethnic terrorism is regarded as the newest expression of terror, and it is closely related to religious and revolutionary terrorism. This phenomenon is connected with the particular area, and it intends to establish ethnic or racial purity. Ethnic terrorists do not compromise and pursue genocidal tactics.
Moreover, they are obsessed with women as the victims of their violence. In addition, ethnic terrorism is authoritarian in its nature (White, 2013). The FBI insists that there is no single and universal definition of terrorism due to the diversity of forms and purposes of violence. However, the US federal code regards terrorism as the unlawful use of violence and force against people and property (White, 2013).
Ideological terrorism is related to violent and cruel acts committed by small groups who terrorize and threaten to impose their political ideals on other people who do not want this. The key ideas of these terrorists can be anarchism, abortion, ecology, animal rights, and antiglobalism. Ideological terrorism was popular in the times of the Soviet Union. It is can be state-sponsored when it comes to political ideals. Ideological terrorism is the most difficult to overcome as such terrorists are ready to die for the sake of their ideals (White, 2013).
The Aum Shinrikyo attack happened in Japan in 1995. The terrorists released sarin nerve gas in the Tokyo subway. 19 persons died, and a large number of people were injured. It is evident that the terrorists attacked to cause fear and panic in the community. However, this occurrence was significant because it proved the necessity to be ready for similar violence. The Aum Shinrikyo attack was a new type of organized crime.
Consequently, it was new for the Japanese police. That terrorism attack was significant because it encouraged the cooperation of police efforts at domestic and international levels. Moreover, that case showed that employees of different areas should be involved when it comes to homeland security.
According to Sprinzak, the origin of ideological terrorism is related to psycho-political processes. Moreover, this kind of offense presupposes reliance on the formation of group identity. It means that there is a group of people who united due to common ideals even if they provoke violence and cruelty. Ideological terrorists are ready to terrorize others for the differences in beliefs, values, and behaviors. Sprinzak states that ideological terrorism involves true believers who are ready to die for their ideals (White, 2013).
Bell and Gurr make the conclusion that labor radicals and their movements can also be referred to as a particular form of terrorism. Any form of violence can be regarded as terrorism as it humiliates human rights (White, 2013). However, Bell and Gurr state that modern terrorism differs from its primary forms as it is more radical and violent (White, 2013).
Moreover, they insist that the character of domestic terrorism also changes becoming more related to politics, nationalism, and international relationships. It means that domestic terrorism is less important and is defined as radicalism. Bell and Gurr insist that terrorism in the USA originates from Asia and the Middle East. Moreover, they believe that the USA does not suffer from domestic terrorism.
It is evident that terrorism is promoted by the organized groups that become extremely diverse in the USA. These are the Justice Department, Earth Liberation Front, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Al-Qaida, Minutemen American Defense, and Ku Klux Klan (White, 2013). Hizballah is a Muslim political party and militant group that is regarded as a terrorist organization by the USA and the European Union. It is supported by Syria and Iran.
The US government considers Hizballah a global terrorist threat. Moreover, the USA states that the group operates in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe as well. Consequently, Hizballah is the most technically capable terrorist organization in the world. It bombed a bus with Israeli tourists, assassinated the Lebanese Prime Minister, and bombed Khobar Towers. Moreover, it organized the hijacking of TWA flight 847 and committed suicide attacks (White, 2013).
Taking hostage is one of the terroristic activities of Hizballah. It was accused of kidnapping foreigners, including Americans.
In conclusion, one should say that ethnic terrorism is increasing in the USA due to the diversity of the nation and globalization. Ideological terrorism is the use of violence and extremism that threatens national security as well as intimidates government and population. Consequently, not without a reason, ideological terrorism is regarded as the most radical and extremist. Most of all, the USA is concerned with Hizballah as the most dangerous terrorist organization that is involved in the bombing, assassinations, and kidnapping.