How to Write a Persuasive Essay?
Persuasive writing is an inseparable part of studies. It implies taking a position regarding some controversial subject and convincing the audience of the validity of such a choice. After looking through such an essay, readers must be ready to accept your point of view and perform an action, which you were encouraging them to take. To do it, you should be versed in the topic, conduct extensive research, find out the biases which a potential reader might have, and learn about the opposing viewpoints.
Then, you should clearly formulate your arguments, convey them to the audience in a pleasant form, and refute the claims of the opponents. In other words, you should act like a lawyer does in court when defends own client.
Being capable of effective persuasive writing is a crucial ability not only to students but literary every individual in the world. Persuasive discourse is everywhere including speeches of political actors, advertising on TV and the Internet, newspapers, and even Facebook posts. Furthermore, the topics discussed in pervasive writing are extremely diverse and versatile. For instance, smoking in public places, vaccination, or even the rules regarding school uniforms might be addressed in such essays.
So, a skill to compose a convincing text is necessary not only to get high grades in school or college. It is also needed to be able to distinguish good arguments from bad ones when somebody tries to convince you of something as well as provide a rebuttal if necessary.
Tips to Write a Top-Notch Persuasive Essay
Many strategies might be used for writing a persuasive essay. However, relying on our extensive experience and expertise in the field of custom writing, the team of TopThesis.com created its own tactic that will definitely bring a satisfactory result. It comprises 5 easy steps, but each of them has its own peculiarities.
Prewriting. This stage of writing may also be referred to as information collecting. You should be familiar with the field, topic, and the audience to proceed to write. Therefore, at this point, it is necessary:
- Take a stance. Read the topic and decide which side of the argument complies with your outlook and be ready to defend it.
- Study the audience. You should know to who you are writing. Is a reader not familiar with a topic, and you just need to fill in the gap in his/her knowledge? Is a reader conversant with the topic and already has a point of view that you need to change? These cases require arguments of different complexity.
- Conduct research. Gather evidence that supports your position by reading the literature authored by scholars, teachers, and professionals. Do not avoid evidence that is against your view. It will be helpful when it comes to refuting the ideas of the opponents. Make sure to read more than one source to see a complete picture.
- Prioritize. Select evidence that is the strongest and the most convincing. Arrange your arguments and evidence from the least to the most persuasive.
Outlining and Structuring. Now, it is necessary to plan the essay. You should create an outline and structure all the ideas properly. Usually, professors provide structure requirements that must be strictly followed. If there are no stringent rules, you may use our outline, which is accepted by the majority of schools. Our plan suggests that a persuasive essay should consist of 6 paragraphs, namely:
- An introduction, which contains a hook to catch a reader’s attention, general information about the topic, and a thesis statement with your position mentioned.
- Three-body paragraphs each of which presents one argument only. It should have evidence that supports position and examples, illustrate the validity of the argument.
- A paragraph with opposing views, i.e., the one where the key point of the opponent’s position is presented and refuted.
- A conclusion that restates the thesis statement and summarizes the main ideas expressed in the body of the paper.
Drafting. With a well-thought-out outline, you are ready to create a draft of your persuasive essay. Here are a few tips that will be extremely helpful in this process:
- You should strike hard from the very beginning. Thus, start an introduction with a hook that will make a reader deeply interested in the topic. You may tell a captivating story, present an impressive fact, statistics, or an emotional quote, and ask a thought-provoking question.
- Writing should be unambiguous. Your position should be clear and firm.
- All body paragraphs should contain one claim that is supported and expounded on. The use of evidence, i.e., statistics, facts, an opinion of experts, and vivid examples, is a must.
- Make your argumentation and writing are diverse. Use different strategies to prove your point, for instance, make a comparison, identify cause-effect relationships, use a hypothetical situation, appeal to the emotions of a reader, etc.
- Do not leave out basic but vital information. Provide definitions and background data, which are important to the subject.
- Apart from summarizing, a conclusion should fulfill one more important function. It should spur a reader to take a certain action or accept your position. The last sentence of the paper might be a prediction, which urges the necessity for the action. Besides, you may end the essay with a question aimed at making the audience reconsider their own views.
Revising. This is a stage of adjusting and improving your essay. At this point, you should refine the content and structure to the maximum extent. The following checklist will help you to decide whether you did everything you could to make your paper perfect:
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- Does the introduction start with a powerful attention grabber, which will definitely make a reader want to continue until the end?
- Is your position regarding the topic articulated clearly? Does it leave no room for misinterpretations?
- Is each body paragraph devoted to one argument only?
- Is evidence presented in each paragraph?
- Are opposing views effectively refuted?
- Is the evidence used diverse?
- Does the conclusion call for action or encourage a change in a reader’s opinion?
- Are the arguments convincing?
Step Five: Editing. The final stroke in the process of writing a persuasive essay is to make it flawless. The text with spelling, grammar, or punctuation mistakes, as well as typos, will never be treated seriously. Therefore, make sure to edit and proofread the paper several times to ensure maximum clarity of ideas and effectiveness of writing.
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A Basic Explanation on Expository Essay
If you received a task to write an expository essay and now panic since you have no idea what expository writing is, do not worry. You have found an excellent article that will answer all of your questions. Read on, and you will learn not only what an expository essay is but also the ways to write it well without too much effort.
What Is Expository Writing?
An expository essay or another piece of writing is a type of text that is aimed at defining, explaining, describing, and informing about a given subject. Such discourse is frequently used in oral communication, especially speeches and lectures. Expository writing is extremely common. Therefore, you are likely to be familiar with it even though the term might be new for you. The bright examples of expository writing are manuals, articles in newspapers, textbooks, instructions with explanations on how to do something, etc. Even the guidelines to write an essay, which were given to you by your professor, belong to the category of expository writing.
What Should I Write in an Expository Essay?
The task to write an expository essay implies presenting facts about a topic. You should neither provide personal comments regarding the information nor express your own opinion. These pieces of writing are about raw data. Such a requirement makes writing expository essays extremely easy. There is no necessity to demonstrate exceptional critical thinking skills and offer unique ideas about a problem. All a student must do is collect some relevant information and present it logically and coherently.
What Are the Features of an Expository Essay?
Although easy, expository writing has certain peculiarities that every student should know about. First, expository essays are written to the audience that is not familiar with the topic under consideration. It means that you should not ignore basic but crucial information about the subject matter but expound on it as if a reader hears about it for the first time in his/her life. Second, the third person should be used for writing an expository essay unless the assignment is to create instructions. In such cases, second-person pronouns may be used. Third, every claim you make should be supported with evidence. For this purpose, you may use descriptive details, quotes, anecdotes, definitions, statistics, comparisons, graphs, tables, and charts.
There are other important features to be aware of. Since expository essays are fact-based, the writing should be focused. You must avoid meaningless fillers, wordiness, unnecessary details, or just irrelevant information. To able to do it, you should choose a specific and narrow topic. Nevertheless, it should not be too narrow either. Thus, if you decide to write about animals, the topic is too broad, and you will not be able to cover it within a page limit set by your professor. If you write about animals that, for example, people living on Evergreen Street keep, the topic is too specific. You should find the balance between two extremes.
How Should I Format My Expository Essay?
A commonly accepted format for an expository essay is a 5-paragraph structure that includes an introduction, three body paragraphs, and, of course, a conclusion. Each body paragraph is devoted to one aspect of a topic. The smooth transition between the paragraphs should be clearly visible. Also, an introduction is supposed to have an expository thesis statement that informs about a topic and the angles from which it is to be discussed. Yet, this is a basic format requirement, and the structure, in fact, might differ depending on the task.
Are There Any Strategies Used in Expository Writing?
Surely, there are a couple of methods that may be applied if you need to write an expository essay. They are very easy to use. Thus, you might want to compare and contrast, examine the cause and effect relationship, provide an extended definition, or, lastly, discuss a problem and offer a solution. As a rule, only one method is used for writing a particular essay, but if necessary, they might be combined. It is allowed under the condition that the paper will be focused as well as free of inessential details and grammar errors. To avoid the latter, you should edit the essay carefully or order our reliable and effective editing service.
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How to Write Narrative Essays?
More so than other types of essays, narrative writing allows the writer to think or reflect on themselves and write something accordingly. Every person has some experiences buried somewhere in their memories, and these are often worth sharing with others. However, these memories are frequently mingled together and, as a result, a considerable amount of the time it takes to write a narrative essay is often devoted to the early stage i.e. before writing actually begins.
In writing a narrative-style essay, the writer is recounting some type of story. A narrative essay is usually written from a definite viewpoint, usually that of the writer, so the essay contains feeling and frequently an amount of sensory detail to involve readers in the sequence and elements of the writer's story. The writer should use precise and vivid verbs. The writer is required to make a point in a narrative essay, a point that is normally made clear early on i.e. in the first sentence of their essay. However, this point is sometimes found at the end of the introductory paragraph i.e. it can be the last sentence of this paragraph.
Because narratives are based on the writer's own experiences, this type of writing is often story-like in form. In using the story-telling technique, the writer needs to employ the usual conventions that are used in storytelling i.e. their writing should have characters, a plot, a setting, a high point, and an end. These essays are normally full of carefully chosen detail to support, explain or enhance the writer's story. Every detail should in some way relate to the writer's main idea or point i.e. to the crux of their story.
To sum up, a narrative essay should be:
- Relayed from a very particular viewpoint
- Based on the main point, which the writer supports over the course of writing their essay
- Full of accurate detail
- Written in a precise manner with vivid and descriptive verbs as well as suitable modifiers
- Based on sequence and conflict just as every story is
- Filled to varying degrees with dialogue if desired.
A narrative's purpose is to describe or report on some particular thing. When students are asked to write narrative reports, many of them believe these are some type of college essay or paper. Although the information contained in these types of reports is fairly basic compared to other types of writing, a narrative report does not require the 'higher level of thinking that is expected in most essays. Therefore, in most cases, a narrative report does not usually fetch a very high grade, at least not in the case of most college and university courses. For instance, book reports are an example of a basic type of narrative report whereby these outline a book's content e.g. its characters, the actions of the characters, and possibly a plot and various scenes. Essentially, these reports describe the happenings in a book while still omitting a great deal.
Usually what is omitted from such a report is what an article or book is about i.e. any assumptions made by the author, any concepts that underlie the text, any arguments put forward by the author, or any viewpoint expressed in the article or book. Narrative reports do not include any discussion that gives context to the events or happenings in an article or book. What is the text about? Love? The fast pace of modern life? Society in general? Poverty? Or perhaps it is about power and wealth? Essentially, a narrative report does not consider any viewpoint the author expresses in their text or their purpose.
Once they have chosen a topic for their narrative, there are three rules or principles the writer needs to keep to the forefront of their mind:
- The readers should be involved in the narrative or story. Recreating an event for readers is a lot more interesting than just telling them about something.
- Identify a general point, which you can support in your story. This method is the only way a writer's own experience will have meaning for the reader. This general point need not involve the whole of the human race. It may concern only the writer or any women, men, or children of various ages and/or backgrounds.
- Undoubtedly, the story is the main element of any narrative. However, the writer needs to choose every detail carefully to explain, support, or embellish their story.
Conventions or Rules of Narrative Essay Writing
The following are a few conventions to bear in mind when writing a narrative essay:
- It is usual to write narratives from the first-person viewpoint, e.g., 'I.' It is, however, also permissible to use the third-person perspective, e.g., 'she,' 'he,' or 'it.'
- A narrative is reliant on solid, sensory detail to get the point of the story across. Details of this type are used to create a strong and unified effect, a forceful overall impression.
- Since they are stories, narratives need to contain the conventions of a story, e.g., plot, characters, setting, high point, and an end
How to Write an Informative Essay: Tips From Experts
An informative essay is, in reality, the same type of writing as expository writing. The primary difference when it comes to the choice of name is the fact that the informative essay informs or says what the purpose of the essay is. By contrast, expository writing expounds on a subject or describes how something is done. When an informative essay is written for a general audience, it is permissible for the writer to use personal pronouns (e.g., “I” and “you”), anecdotes, and an informal tone. In the academic world, however, the tone of an informative essay should be formal and the style should be academic. The arguments and information in it should be presented objectively and it should not contain any colloquialisms, contractions, any personalization (unless a tutor or instructor has other preferences).
The information in an informative essay can be organized in any one of several different patterns
These patterns can be caused/effect, comparison, definition, problem/solution, and/or in sequential steps. The informative essay is often used in the academic world where many of these writing styles are used in classes covering technical subjects. For example, writing in sequential steps is often used in manuals explaining how something is done. Likewise, it is common for informative essays of the compare and contrast variety to be used in classes about literature to compare literary elements such as character, theme, and so on.
In the same manner, like expository writing, an informative essay has a set structure, which includes an introductory paragraph, a few paragraphs setting out the writer’s argument(s), a paragraph addressing any counter-argument(s), and a concluding paragraph. The introductory paragraph should include a thesis statement or question that is arguable. Being arguable refers to a thesis where there may be opposing views or counterclaims. The paragraphs devoted to the writer’s argument(s) set out an amount of information collected from the opinions of experts, the writer’s own analysis, interviews, field surveys, statistics, and other reliable academic material. Additionally, in each of the argument paragraphs (where each paragraph is devoted to a single argument) you should evaluate the particular argument for that paragraph and demonstrate how it relates to your central thesis.
Once you have objectively presented the arguments supporting your essay’s thesis, you then need to present one or even two counter-arguments, again in an objective manner, along with your evaluation of each one and a statement in respect of how each relates, either in a supporting or contradictory way, to your essay’s thesis.
Your concluding paragraph should reiterate the main thesis statement and recap on your supporting arguments while showing how you successfully proved your point(s). It is also permissible to include a statement about how relevant your topic and your thesis are to any current or future study or application. This closing paragraph should be around the same length as your introductory paragraph. Therefore, the language and statements need to be succinct and concise.
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How to Write a Thesis Statement for Informative Essay?
When you need to create a thesis statement for an informative essay, you should remember that the goal of an informative paper is to avoid giving you a personal point of view, but provide information and teach your targeted audience about the selected topic. Often, informative papers are referred to as expository essays. Such type of essays is not aimed at changing one’s opinion.
Remember that informative means interesting. Of course, you are free to share your ideas and thoughts regarding the issue under discussion but avoid a persuasive tone.
In some cases, you will need to conduct an analysis of the collected information and process the thoughts and ideas of other researchers. That is why when you ask: “How to write a good informative essay?” we will recommend you to follow the below rules:
- Save your time and energy and remember that reading the whole text is not really necessary. Choose the most interesting text part and work with it.
- Express the author’s thoughts and ideas in a short form, avoid any distortions.
- Finally, write your informative essay using proper essay structure with logical and coherent paragraphs.
Easy Steps to Writing an Informative Essay: Proper Structure
Usually, the informative essay does not have a particular structure. However, it is required to follow the basic writing principles. Usually, such types of essays should be from 3 to 5 pages in length. At least four or three sources should be used. Use a formal writing style and avoid personal pronouns or mentioning personal life experiences.
Basic rules of informative essay structure are easy to follow. You need to provide the following: an introduction with a clear thesis statement for an informative essay, main body, and logical conclusion. The topic can be your essay title. Fill in the title page by following the requirements of your educational establishment.
The introduction is the essay's beginning. Here you need to present your topic and attract readers’ attention. The focus sentence should be included for the whole paper. Begin your first paragraph with the general idea and get more specific gradually. You should also provide some background for the main terminology. Mention the major points and information you are going to discuss in your paper. The introduction should end with a clear thesis statement for an informative essay. Usually, a thesis statement in such essays can be in the form of a comparison of points of view on a controversial topic or various sources of information related to a particular issue, etc. you need to research and collect the data on the chosen topic.
In the main body, you need to provide materials and information, which is considered the most important for the readers. It has to bridge the gap between the lack of information related to the discussed topic. You need to use different facts, materials, and judgments of experts. Remember that all mentioned facts should be accurate. The outline can help you structure all the facts coherently and logically. An informative essay should contain a particular fact line in every paragraph. For instance, when your topic is “understanding the connection between heart disease and cholesterol,” then you need to provide in your main body full particulars connected to the real causes of heart disease, their severity, and number.
Talk about the research work, as well as the conducted experiments that can prove the real connection of heart disease with high levels of cholesterol. You need to provide some arguments against this statement as well. Real statistical data and facts should be provided in the main body.
You need to conclude by being specific to giving general information. You can restate the significance of the problem under discussion and give a summary of for and against facts related to the topic. For instance, you can begin with the following sentence: “After informing you about hypertension and high level of cholesterol, it can be concluded that the above-mentioned factors have a direct impact on heart disease.” Be aware! Introducing any new facts, in conclusion, is forbidden in academic writing. The main goal of the conclusion is to summarize the already said in the main body.
Please note that an informative essay differs from a persuasive essay. An informative essay should be free from any biases and contain objective information. An informative essay is meant to explain some complex issues simply. You can find informative essay examples for college online and check out their structure.
Easy tips that will help you to create an excellent informative essay:
- Select an interesting topic for your essay.
- Do not provide your personal point of view in the informative essay. Instead, you need to educate and inform your audience about a particular issue.
- Make a logical outline that will help you to write a coherent essay.
- Make a list of questions related to the topic of your choice.
- Collect all the materials related to your essay from credible and up-to-date sources.
- Conduct online research on your topic. You can also visit a library for more sources. Choose only reliable sources of information.
- Conduct an analysis of facts and any details found in the sources.
- Present the essay topic and attract readers’ attention.
- Provide background information on the main terms presented in the essay.
- Make a comparison of facts and different points of view related to the topic and its controversies.
- Begin with general information and slowly go to specific facts and data.
The inverted pyramid would look like this:
- General Facts and ideas
- Specific Thesis Statement
- Information and all the necessary materials should be provided in the body
- Use different facts, sources, and judgments of experts
- All the facts provided in the essay should be accurate
- Restate the significance of the discussed issue. Give a summary of facts that support and rebut your thesis statement.
- The conclusion cannot have new ideas, facts, and information.
- The main goal of the conclusion is to summarize the paper.
The work done should be analyzed
Try to understand whether you managed to provide all the information. Will the audience have any prejudices regarding the presented information?
Do not forget that:
an informative essay should objectively present information;
it should be free from bias;
try to make your essay interesting and informative at the same time.
To find an interesting topic for your essay, you can look at a sample informative essay online or check out the below possible topics for an informative essay:
- How to Purchase Property?
- The Significance of Active LifeStyle
- Regular Exercises and Their Impact on Health
- Global Warming and Its Causes
- Hybrid Cars and Money Savings
- Contractors and Their Qualification
- Heart Disease and What Causes It?
- Global Poverty and Its Definition
- Globalization and Its Effect on Daily Life
Useful Tips on How to Write a Definition Essay
What are Definition Essays?
Definition essays are a genre of writing wherein the writer explains the meaning of some term. Certain terms have very definite and very concrete meanings e.g. such words as flower, tree, and grass. However, other terms are more abstract and more dependent on a given person's viewpoint e.g. such words as love, honor, trust, and so on.
Three Key Steps to Creating a Nice Definition Essay
- Let your readers know what word or term you will be defining.
- Present your readers with basic and clear information.
- Use anecdotes, facts, and/or examples that your readers are likely to understand.
Deciding on a Definition for Your Essay
An essential step for anyone who has to write a definition essay is choosing a term to define. It is important you fully understand this term if you are to explain its meaning to others. While you may check the definition in a dictionary, you should not simply copy these words. You need to provide a brief explanation of the term in words of your own choosing. Your chosen term will also need limiting before you can begin writing your definition of it. One could, for instance, write an endless amount about the word love. However, as a way of limiting this word or narrowing it down, you could write either about the experience of first love, the characteristics of platonic-type love, or you could focus on romantic love.
Creating a Thesis Statement for a Definition Essay
Usually, the thesis statement in a definition essay will identify the term to be defined in the essay by providing a fairly short and basic description of it.
For example, the term plus a basic description as in the following to be assertive is to stand up for one's rights.
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Tips on Writing a Good Definition
Start creating your definition. There are several ways by which a term can be defined. The options below are just a few possible ways:
- A term can be defined by its function i.e. by explaining what some particular thing is or how it works.
- A term can be defined by its structure i.e. by explaining how a given thing is assembled or organized.
- A term can be defined by analyzing it i.e. by comparing an item to other items of its type and then illustrating how the items differ. The differences are those traits that distinguish the term and set it apart. You could, for instance, compare how a German Shepherd dog differs from other types of dogs such as collies, huskies, or sports dogs.
Example: A German shepherd is a breed of dog of German origin renowned for its strength and aptitude for different types of work.
A term can be defined by its opposite meaning i.e. by defining what it does not actually mean. This method can be a good way of clarifying the definition of a term so that readers can understand it better.
A term can be defined with the use of anecdotes, facts, and examples. Use these props to fully define and explain a term. Ask these questions yourself: Which facts or examples would help readers realize this term. Would a short story assist in getting the point of this term Try to avoid examples that do not explain or support your definition?
Keep this in mind: Definition essays are written pieces that explain the meaning of a term. When working on this type of essay, tell your readers what term you are to define and provide a basic and coherent explanation. Use anecdotes, facts, and examples that your readers are likely to understand.
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Expert Tips on How to Write a Compare/Contrast Essay
Essays that involve comparing and contrasting various items are a popular genre of essays in the academic world. This type of writing is expected to address a specific question and it is relatively easy compared to other types of writing. In fact, when it comes to tackling an essay of this type, the writer has several options. The structure is one of the most essential things to keep in mind. Many a good essay has failed because the writer did not pay enough attention to structure, and this can cause any displays of ingenuity on the writer's part to go to waste. Hence, it is best to familiarize yourself with the rules that apply to writing a standard essay and then to choose a structure from the two described below:
Begin by Creating an Introduction
As is the case with five-paragraph essays, the opening section in a compare and contrast essay should begin in a relatively general manner e.g. with a quotation, anecdote, or general statement, and progress from there to a more specific statement of the thesis statement.
First Item or Topic
The section that comes next in a compare/contrast essay (which may be comprised of one or several paragraphs) should deal only with the first element or topic being compared and/or contrasted. Almost without exception, this type of essay deals with two subjects or topics and draws attention to their similarities and/or differences. You should not mention the other topic in this section.
Second Item or Topic
This section (which may also comprise of just one paragraph or several) should deal with the second of your two subjects or topics. Here, you should not mention the first of your topics. Given that you have already covered it in quite a bit of detail in the preceding section, it is acceptable to refer to the first part of the topic in brief terms but do not go into any in-depth analysis of it in this part. The purpose of this section is to cover the second item or topic in quite a detailed manner.
Cover the Two Topics Together
Once you have analyzed and covered your first topic and your second topic separately, you can now analyze or discuss them alongside each other. As with the previous two sections, this one may be one paragraph long or it can be several.
As is the case in the opening paragraph, the last paragraph (the conclusion) should recap in a general way on the thesis statement. You should use this closing paragraph to demonstrate your unequivocal knowledge or absolute certainty about your subject matter. Reaffirm your central thesis statement by restating it in other words and remind your readers how you have proven this statement or assertion.
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- Begin by Creating an Introduction
Again, as you would with a five-paragraph essay, you should begin this essay in a general manner, e.g., with a quotation, anecdote, or general statement, and proceed to a more specific statement of your thesis statement.
- Deal with Comparisons for Both Topics
In this portion of your essay, which will comprise several paragraphs, you should present all the similarities evident in both the topics you are dealing with. Choose three points of comparison at least i.e. three reasonably short paragraphs wherein you should provide one example for each of the two topics you are comparing.
- Deal with the Contrasting Aspects of Both Topics
In much the same vein as the previous section, you should use this portion to highlight all the ways that both topics are different. Once again, this section should be comprised of several paragraphs and it should contain three contrasting features at least (i.e. three relatively brief paragraphs) where you provide an example in each paragraph of a contrasting feature of both topics.
- Concluding Section
In the last paragraph (the conclusion), you should wrap up your entire essay, recapping everything you have presented or proven as you progressed through it. Here, you should also restate your thesis in a freshly worded and more official-sounding manner. The tone of your writing in this section should come across as confident.
Below is an overview showing what completed compare/contrast essays look like:
- First (introduction) paragraph: Atopic introduction with opening comments and central thesis statement
- Second (2nd) paragraph: Topic One with comparison No 1
- Third (3rd) paragraph: Topic One with comparison No 2
- Fourth (4th) paragraph: Topic One with comparison No 3
- Fifth (5th) paragraph: Topic Two with contrast No 1
- Sixth (6th) paragraph: Topic Two with contrast No 2
- Seventh (7th) paragraph: Topic Two with contrast No 3
- Eighth (8th) paragraph (if desired): Compare and/or Contrast all or any topics together.
- Ninth (9th) paragraph: Closing paragraph (conclusion).
- First (introduction) paragraph: Atopic introduction with opening comments and central thesis statement
- Second (2nd) paragraph: Comparison one (to cover topics one and two)
- Third (3rd) paragraph: Comparison two (to cover topics one and two)
- Fourth (4th) paragraph: Comparison three (to cover topics one and two)
- Fifth (5th) paragraph: Contrast one (to cover topics one and two)
- Sixth (6th) paragraph: Contrast two (to cover topics one and two)
- Seventh (7th) paragraph: Contrast three (to cover topics one and two)
- Eighth (8th) paragraph: Concluding or closing paragraph.